Artículo: Cognitive conflicts and symptom severity in dysthymia

17 03 2014

 

salud-mental

 

Artículo: 

Montesano, A., Feixas, G., Erazo-Caicedo, M. I., Saúl, L. A., Dada, G., & Winter, D. (2014). Cognitive conflicts and symptom severity in Dysthymia: “I’d rather be good than happy”. Salud Mental, 37(1), 41-48.

En este estudio se presenta un método para el estudio de los conflictos cognitivos utilizando la técnica de rejilla. Por medio de ella, se identificaron los dilemas implicativos, una estructura cognitiva en la que un constructo personal en el que se desea un cambio se asocia con otro constructo en el que el cambio no es deseable. Se evaluó la presencia de dilemas y la gravedad sintomatológica en una muestra de 46 participantes que cumplían criterios diagnósticos para la distimia y se comparó con un grupo control compuesto por 496 participantes. Por último, se llevó a cabo un análisis del contenido de los constructos personales que forman los dilemas. Se encontraron dilemas en casi 70% de la muestra clínica frente a 39% de la muestra control y en mayor cantidad. Por otro lado, los participantes de ambos grupos con este tipo de conflicto mostraron un nivel mayor de sintomatología depresiva y malestar general que aquellos sin dilemas. Además, se encontró una alta correlación entre el número de dilemas implicativos y la gravedad de los síntomas. Los resultados del análisis de contenido mostraron que los dilemas estaban frecuentemente formados por una constelación de valores morales y constructos emocionales indicando que a menudo los síntomas están asociados a aspectos positivos del sí mismo, por lo que el proceso de cambio puede verse bloqueado. Se discuten las implicaciones clínicas de abordar los dilemas en el contexto terapéutico.

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Artículo: Efficacy of a dilemma-focused intervention for unipolar depression

2 10 2013

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Efficacy of a dilemma-focused intervention for unipolar depression: study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial

Background

Depression is one of the more severe and serious health problems because of its morbidity, disabling effects and for its societal and economic burden. Despite the variety of existing pharmacological and psychological treatments, most of the cases evolve with only partial remission, relapse and recurrence.

Cognitive models have contributed significantly to the understanding of unipolar depression and its psychological treatment. However, success is only partial and many authors affirm the need to improve those models and also the treatment programs derived from them. One of the issues that requires further elaboration is the difficulty these patients experience in responding to treatment and in maintaining therapeutic gains across time without relapse or recurrence. Our research group has been working on the notion of cognitive conflict viewed as personal dilemmas according to personal construct theory. We use a novel method for identifying those conflicts using the repertory grid technique (RGT). Preliminary results with depressive patients show that about 90% of them have one or more of those conflicts. This fact might explain the blockage and the difficult progress of these patients, especially the more severe and/or chronic. These results justify the need for specific interventions focused on the resolution of these internal conflicts. This study aims to empirically test the hypothesis that an intervention focused on the dilemma(s) specifically detected for each patient will enhance the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression.

Design

A therapy manual for a dilemma-focused intervention will be tested using a randomized clinical trial by comparing the outcome of two treatment conditions: combined group CBT (eight, 2-hour weekly sessions) plus individual dilemma-focused therapy (eight, 1-hour weekly sessions) and CBT alone (eight, 2-hour group weekly sessions plus eight, 1-hour individual weekly sessions).

Method

Participants are patients aged over 18 years meeting diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder, with a score of 19 or above on the Beck depression inventory, second edition (BDI-II) and presenting at least one cognitive conflict (implicative dilemma or dilemmatic construct) as assessed using the RGT. The BDI-II is the primary outcome measure, collected at baseline, at the end of therapy, and at 3- and 12-month follow-up; other secondary measures are also used.

Discussion

We expect that adding a dilemma-focused intervention to CBT will increase the efficacy of one of the more prestigious therapies for depression, thus resulting in a significant contribution to the psychological treatment of depression.

Acceso al artículo: Trials 








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